february 2012




Research & Development



New Magnetic-Field-Sensitive Alloy Could Find Use in Novel Micromechanical Devices
nistLed by a group at the University of Maryland (UMd), a multi-institution team of researchers has combined modern materials research and an age-old metallurgy technique to produce an alloy that could be the basis for a new class of sensors and micromechanical devices controlled by magnetism.* The alloy, a combination of cobalt and iron, is notable, among other things, for not using rare-earth elements to achieve its properties. Materials scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) contributed precision measurements of the alloy's structure and mechanical properties to the project.


The alloy exhibits a phenomenon called "giant magnetostriction," an amplified change in dimensions when placed in a sufficiently strong magnetic field. The effect is analogous to the more familiar piezoelectric effect that causes certain materials, like quartz, to compress under an electric field. They can be used in a variety of ways, including as sensitive magnetic field detectors and tiny actuators for micromechanical devices. The latter is particularly interesting to engineers because, unlike piezoelectrics, magnetostrictive elements require no wires and can be controlled by an external magnetic field source.


To find the best mixture of metals and processing, the team used a combinatorial screening technique, fabricating hundreds of tiny test cantilevers—tiny, 10-millimeter-long, silicon beams looking like diving boards— and coating them with a thin film of alloy, gradually varying the ratio of cobalt to iron across the array of cantilevers. They also used two different heat treatments, including, critically, one in which the alloy was heated to an annealing temperature and then suddenly quenched in water.


Quenching is a classic metallurgy technique to freeze a material's microstructure in a state that it normally only has when heated. In this case, measurements at NIST and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) showed that the best-performing alloy had a delicate hetereogenous, nanoscale structure in which cobalt-rich crystals were embedded throughout a different, iron-rich crystal structure. Magnetostriction was determined by measuring the amount by which the alloy bent the tiny silicon cantilever in a magnetic field, combined with delicate measurements at NIST to determine the stiffness of the cantilever.


The best annealed alloy showed a sizeable magnetostriction effect in magnetic fields as low as about 0.01 Tesla. (The earth's magnetic field generally ranges around roughly 0.000 045 T, and a typical ferrite refrigerator magnet might be about 0.7 T.)


The results, says team leader Ichiro Takeuchi of UMd, are lower than, but comparable to, the values for the best known magnetostrictive material, a rare-earth alloy called Tb-Dy-Fe**—but with the advantage that the new alloy doesn't use the sometimes difficult to acquire rare earths. "Freezing in the heterogeneity by quenching is an old method in metallurgy, but our approach may be unique in thin films," he observes. "That's the beauty—a nice, simple technique but you can get these large effects."


The quenched alloy might offer both size and processing advantages over more common piezoelectric microdevices, says NIST materials scientist Will Osborn.


"Magnetorestriction devices are less developed than piezoelectrics, but they're becoming more interesting because the scale at which you can operate is smaller," he said. "Piezoelectrics are usually oxides, brittle and often lead-based, all of which is hard on manufacturing processes. These alloys are metal and much more compatible with the current generation of integrated device manufacturing. They're a good next-generation material for microelectromechanical machines."


The effort also involved researchers from the Russian Institute of Metal Physics, Urals Branch of the Academy of Science; Oregon State University and Rowan University. Funding sources included the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation. SSRL is part of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operated under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.


* D. Hunter, W. Osborn, K. Wang, N. Kazantseva, J. Hattrick-Simpers, R. Suchoski, R. Takahashi, M.L. Young, A. Mehta, L.A. Bendersky, S.E. Lofland, M. Wuttig and I. Takeuchi. Giant magnetostriction in annealed Co1-xFex thin-films. Nature Communications. Nov. 1, 2011. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1529
** Terbium-dysprosium-iron.









  Sponsored Announcement

Rare Earth Crisis Dissected: Calculating the Future

Magnetics 2012 Speaker Q&A


2011 has been a year of tumultuous change in the Rare Earth Materials (REM) marketplace, particularly for NdFeB-based materials. Prices have skyrocketed beyond rhyme or reason. The supply chain has been strained beyond capacity. Projects have stalled or designs revamped to exclude or substitute NdFeB.  Supplier relationships have been damaged or destroyed. Mines and factories have closed en masse. To predict the future, one must first understand the past and present. John Ebert from Yunsheng USA, will give a presentation at Magnetics 2012. John took the time to discuss his presentation with MB&T magazine & why it's important to take stock of the recent past to understand the future impact of REM on designs, costing, procurement and the supply chain. 


Q: Are there any technology advancements or economical factors that make your presentation timely?

A: This past year, the REM marketplace has gone through turmoil on a tumultuous scale never before witnessed! What has happened to the REM industry is akin to Tulipmania, the OPEC and Silver crises.  Manufacturers and their customers are clamoring to understand what happened and more importantly, where the industry is going from hereon.  This presentation will answer the what’s, why’s and how’s. 


Q: How can/will the information you provide impact attendees or their business operations?

A: Purchasing managers need to understand the trend in REM pricing to plan and time their purchases.  Applications and production engineers need to understand how best to re-design or extend their present designs in concert with the availability and cost of REM ingredients.  CEO’s, CTO’s and CFO’s need to formulate the direction of their present and future product offerings based on near- and long-term material considerations.


Q: Who is your presentation most targeted towards?

A: Purchasing managers and applications engineers.  The most affected applications are: speakers, BLDC and linear motors, green energy (HEV/EV, windpower), consumer electronics (cell phones, laptops, PC’s) and specialty sensors (medical, aerospace, military). 
Q: What lasting value will the attendee receive?

John: For over a year, the marketplace has been inundated with gossip, conspiracy theories and anecdotal information to explain a complex market situation.   Attendees will receive real information from a reputable source within the Chinese REM industry, without spin or doublespeak, which can be used to inform their customers and business partners of the “facts”.


Q: Any other comments for our attendees?

A: Be prepared to receive information that is countermand to what they may have formerly believed to be true.  This may get controversial! 


Silver Sponsor



Yunsheng USA, Inc. is a global industrial materials and OEM electric machine and systems manufacturer, with more than 7,000 employees located throughout 7 facilities.  Yunsheng is a market leader in rare earth permanent magnet manufacturing technology and magnetics applications across clean energy, IT, medical, aerospace, electric motor and auto industries,  Yunsheng provides comprehensive manufacturing services from high quality magnet materials, to complex and precision assemblies, and OEM electric machines. Yunsheng is certified ISO9001, ISO14001 and TS16949.




Magnetics 2012 will be Co-Located with the Motor, Drive & Automation Systems 2012

Motor, Drive & Automation Systems 2012Motor, Drive & Automation Systems 2012 is an international, industry-leading conference focused on the latest economic trends and technical advancements impacting motor, drive and automation systems. Join hundreds of peers and potential business partners and discover how new technologies are improving performance, energy efficiency and providing cost savings in a variety of applications.

  New Products

MEDER electronic, Inc. MMS - 2.8 mm Implantable MEMS Reed Sensors Need No Power

mederA new, ultra-small magnetically actuated reed sensor that requires no power and is designed for switching CMOS gates and other low power signal switching devices such as implantable medical pacemakers and insulin pumps is being introduced by MEDER electronic.


MEDER MMS Reed Sensors are magnetically actuated on/off sensors that feature no power draw and measure only L2.8mm[0.110”]  x W2.05mm [0.080”] x H1.2mm [0.047"].  Designed for switching low power devices where size is critical, they are available with magnetic sensitivity ranges from 1-4 millitesla and are tested to withstand up to 15,000 G's shock from any direction.  Choose from 2 surface mount lead designs in a SPST-NO (Form A) version: lead design 1 (straight cut axial lead), and lead design 2 (Gull Wing).


Manufactured using semiconductor wafer technology, MEDER MMS Reed Sensors are supplied in tape and reel according to IEC 286/part 3, suitable for auto pick and place equipment. These SPST reed sensors have a switching voltage of 3 VDC max., with 109 insulation resistance across the contacts.  These reed sensors are EDS sensitive and RoHS compliant.  Available today at Digi-Key Corporation.

New CMT-8100 Series Common Mode Inductors Offer Superior EMI Suppression
cmtWith advanced magnetics designed to eliminate common noise to all lines in power supply designs, the new CMT-8100 series common mode inductors from Triad Magnetics feature rugged construction and materials for high-temperature applications in demanding electronics operating environments.


The CMT-8100 series inductors are used in various types of power supplies to eliminate noise common to all lines. They offer improved EMI suppression over a wide frequency spectrum and a high current capacity. Meeting VDE, IEC, UL, and CSA requirements, they minimize AC line transmitted interference often created by high frequency switching power supplies. Normally placed close to the input power source, the compact CMT-8100 series inductors are constructed with reliable UL rated materials.


The CMT-8100 series inductors are well suited for use in designs for industrial controls, plant instrumentation and heavy duty equipment.  In many plant, factory and commercial business environments, the number of devices operating and the high density of their placement for operational efficiency leads to noise problems. The filtering provided by the CMT-8100 series ensures equipment operates reliably in high density environments.


CMT-8100 series inductors feature high dielectric strength of 1500 VRMS between windings. They operate at a wide temperature range of -55°C to 105°C, with the rated current yielding a temperature rise of approximately 35°C.  Inductors in the series offer a minimum inductance per winding ranging from 1 to 50 mH, a current rating ranging from 1.7 to 20 amps and a DCR range from 0.006 to 0.45 Ω.


The CMT-8100 series inductors feature a toroidal construction with through-hole mounting.  They come in rectangular packages ranging from 0.76 inch by 0.425 inch to 1.7 inch by 0.9 inch max with height ranging from 0.90 inch to 1.65 inch depending on the specific model. 


Depending on the model selected and the quantity ordered, the CMT series transformers are priced starting at $2.25 each in quantities of 1,000 units with delivery from stock to eight weeks lead time. They are available off-the-shelf from Triad's extensive distributor network.

New TMR Sensors Offer Large Range, Improved Performance and Low Power
MultiDimension Technology Co., Ltd. (MDT), a supplier of magnetic sensors specializing in Tunneling Magnetoresistance (TMR) technology, has released a lineup of three linear magnetic field sensors, MMLD47F, MMLP57F and MMLP57H. The magnetic field sensors features include a large dynamic range of ±70 Oe, ultra-low hysteresis below 0.1 percent of the full-scale field range, high sensitivity up to 6 mV/V/Oe, and power consumption as low as 5 microwatts. They are designed to suit a variety of industrial and consumer applications under diverse operating conditions, including magnetic field, current, and position sensing.


"MDT's new TMR linear sensors provide the best value to applications that demand large dynamic range, precision measurement, high sensitivity, and low power consumption. Backed by our strong intellectual property portfolio and advanced manufacturing facilities, we are fully capable of offering all these critical benefits in a single sensor design. This combination of benefits is unprecedented, and it is not achievable using any other existing magnetic sensor technologies, including Anisotropic Magnetoresistance (AMR), Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR), or the Hall Effect.  MDT is the first high-volume manufacturer that brings the full advantages of TMR technology to the commercial sensor market," said Dr. Song Xue, chairman and CEO of MultiDimension Technology. "With our world-class expertise in TMR technology, volume production, application engineering, and technical support, we are confident that MDT will create ground-breaking opportunities to expedite the growth of the magnetic sensor industry, which are otherwise not possible in today's market."


The MMLD47F/MMLP57F/MMLP57H sensors are available in a 6 mm by 5 mm by 1.7 mm SOP8 package and a small 3 mm by 3 mm by 0.75 mm DFN8 package for space-constrained designs. They exhibit ultra-low hysteresis below 0.1 percent full-scale, while operating over a wide field range of up to ±70 Oe, and they show improved temperature stability from -40°C to 125°C. The magnetic field sensitivity is designed to be 3 to 6 mV/V/Oe, and the typical current consumption is between 5 and 12.5 microamperes with a 1 V voltage supply.

asmMagnetic Rotary Position Sensors for Use in Medical Applications
ASM Sensors, a manufacturer of position sensors, offers the extension of the POSIROT family of magnetic rotary sensors, the PRAS20/PRAS21 series for use in the medical equipment industry. This non-contact position sensor uses an external position magnet to reliably provide an absolute output signal over a 0 to 360° measurement range.


By using an external magnet, this sensor provides continuously, wear-free operation. The maximum measurement range is 360° and may be ordered with smaller measurement ranges in 15° increments. The sensor output is an analog voltage signal, 0.5 V to 4.5 V. For the PRAS20 series, 0.5 to 10V and 4 to 20 mA outputs are also available. A redundant output is an available option in the PRAS20 series.


The ultra-compact PRAS21 series housing has a height of less than 0.25 inch that is rated IP60 that allows it to fit into the tightest medical equipment applications. The circuit board is fully potted to provide a high level of shock and vibration resistance. The resolution is rated at 0.03 percent of full scale (60…360°) and 0.1 percent full scale (15…45°), the repeatability is ±0.03 percent (60…360°); ±0.1 percent (15…45°) and linearity is ±0.5 percent full scale. 


The favorable price per performance and ultra flat profile of the PRAS21 series make it well suited for numerous medical OEM applications, such as surgical table positioning. In medical applications that do not require water tight housings, the PRAS20/21 series position sensor can replace large, costly sensors with metal housings. The sensor is quickly and easily installed with M3 bolts.

Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. Introduces New Automotive, Sensorless BLDC Controller
allegroAllegro introduces a new three-phase, sensorless, brushless DC (BLDC) motor controller for use with external N-channel power MOSFETs that is designed for various pump, blower and cooling fan automotive applications.  The motor is driven using block commutation (trapezoidal drive) where phase commutation is determined, without the need for independent position sensors, by monitoring the motor back-emf.  A programmable mo­tor start-up scheme allows the Allegro A4960 to be adjusted for a wide range of motor and load combinations.


External bootstrap capacitors are used to provide the above battery supply voltage required to drive the  N-channel MOSFETs. An automatic internal bootstrap charge management scheme ensures that the bootstrap capacitor is always sufficiently charged for safe operation of the power MOSFETs. The power MOSFETs are protected from shoot-through by integrated crossover control and adjustable dead time.


Integrated diagnostics provide indication of undervoltage, overtemperature and power bridge faults and can be configured to protect the power FETs under most short circuit conditions. Detailed diagnostics are available as a serial data word or through a programmable diagnostic output. The A4960 is supplied in a 32 lead eLQFP (suffix JP).  This package is available in lead (Pb) free versions, with 100 percent matte-tin lead frame plating (-T).  The A4960KJPTR-T is priced at $3.78 in quantities of 1,000.

Lake Shore Cryotronics Introduces 8400 Series Hall Effect Measurement System
lakeshoreLake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. has introduced the new 8400 series Hall effect measurement system (HMS), developed in collaboration with Toyo Corp. of Japan. The 8400 series HMS features optional AC field measurement capability that enables measurement of Hall mobilities down to 0.001 cm²/V s – lower than ever possible using traditional DC field Hall measurement techniques. Measurement of low mobilities is highly desirable for contemporary semiconductor and electronic materials being developed for such applications as green energy, efficient lighting, flexible inexpensive electronics, and high power devices.

The Model 8404 HMS provides a robust platform to which new features can be added as material measurement needs evolve. The standard system comes equipped with DC field measurement capabilities and a resistance range from 0.5 mΩ to 10 MΩ. The Model 8404 HMS can provide a full range of Hall measurements on van der Pauw samples. An assortment of options, including AC field capability, variable temperature assemblies, high resistance, and low resistance broaden measurement opportunities and simplify experimental processes.


In the past, the traditional DC field Hall measurement technique has been sufficient to measure materials with mobilities down to approximately 1 cm²/V s. However, the emerging class of photovoltaic (solar cell), thermoelectric and organic electronic materials is characterized by low mobilities that are difficult, if not impossible to measure. The 8400 series HMS uses DC field techniques to extract the diminishingly small Hall voltage from the background noise produced by these new materials, and closes the gap between traditional DC field measurement techniques and these low mobility materials.


  Industry News

Free Webinar on Low Frequency Electromagnetic Simulation Using CST STUDIO SUITE Version 2012

CSTCST STUDIO SUITE is used to simulate a wide range of applications such as sensors, electromechanical devices, high voltage equipment, transformers and power electronic devices and much more. Advanced features critical to the design process include automatic mesh generation and refinement, special curved and higher order elements,  parametric analysis and automatic post-processing, as well as interoperability with third party system simulators.


An important feature in a state-of-the-art simulation tool is the ability to import, modify and parameterize complex CAD and user-defined geometries. 2D models can be easily derived from such a 3D design, where the 2D model is consistent with the original 3D model and includes no extra overhead.


This webinar presents a summary of current and new functionality in CST EM STUDIO 2012, which is demonstrated on practical examples. More information and registration at

Molycorp to Receive $390 Million Strategic Investment from Molymet
Molycorp, Inc. has announced that Molibdenos y Metales S.A. (Molymet), the world’s largest processor of the strategic metals molybdenum and rhenium, has agreed to invest approximately $390 million in Molycorp in exchange for 12.5 million shares of Molycorp common stock. The price of the Molycorp shares to be purchased were valued based on the 20-day volume weighted average share price as of the close of trading on January 30, 2012 plus a 10.0 percent premium. Molycorp has agreed to appoint to its Board of Directors upon the closing of the proposed investment a nominee to be designated by Molymet.


Proceeds from the Molymet investment will be retained by Molycorp for general corporate purposes and will bolster Molycorp’s strategic flexibility. The funds are expected to finance Molycorp’s future growth and will help the company continue to pursue its vertical supply chain integration business model. Closing of the transaction is subject to the satisfaction of customary closing conditions, including the receipt of certain governmental regulatory approvals.


Headquartered in Santiago, Chile, Molymet has a market capitalization of $1.8 billion and is a leading processor of molybdenum and rhenium. Molymet has plants in Chile, Mexico, Belgium, Germany and China, and commercial offices in England, China, the US, Brazil and Chile.


John Graell, Molymet’s executive chairman and CEO, is expected to serve on Molycorp’s Board. He has more than 30 years of experience in the metals industry, and is a highly respected industry leader with a long history of business success.


“We are very pleased with Molymet’s decision to make this significant strategic investment in Molycorp, and we look forward to having John Graell, and his wealth of experience and insight, join our Board when nominated by Molymet,” said Mark A. Smith, Molycorp president and CEO. “Molymet’s investment will help us pursue the growth elements of our business strategy and positions us to capitalize on opportunities that present themselves in the future.”


“We are making this investment in Molycorp because we are very bullish on the upside potential of the company, as well as the highly synergistic technologies and market positioning of our respective companies,” said Graell. “Molycorp’s vision for growth and global supply chain integration is highly attractive to us, and I look forward to working with the Company to help it achieve its long-term goals.”

Vishay Intertechnology Announces Acquisition of HiRel Systems LLC, a Specialty Inductor Company
Vishay Intertechnology, has announced the acquisition of HiRel Systems LLC, a supplier of high reliability transformers, inductors, coils and power conversion products. The purchase price was approximately $85 million, including repayment of HiRel debt, and subject to customary post-closing adjustments.


“We are pleased to welcome HiRel into the Vishay family,” said Marc Zandman, Vishay’s Executive chairman and chief business development officer. “The HiRel Systems product and technology portfolio will further enhance our inductors portfolio, particularly in the field of custom magnetics for medical, military, aerospace and aviation, and applications in the industrial and commercial field such as renewable energy and test and measurement equipment.”


“In the Company’s announced growth plan,” said Dr. Gerald Paul, Vishay’s president and chief executive officer, “we indicated that niche acquisitions would supplement intensified internal growth. Our acquisition of HiRel Systems fits well into this strategy, strengthening our product offering in the high reliability inductor and transformer business.”



Event Listings



Download the brochure

The Latest Developments in the Rare Earths & Magnetics Markets - What's Ahead?

MAGNETICS 2012, to be held March 13-14, 2012 in Orlando, FL, is a once-a-year opportunity for professionals involved in magnetics technologies to not only get the latest information on the global issues of rare earths, but to learn the latest advancements in magnetic applications, technology and materials.


Magnetics 2012 will focus on the latest advancements in magnetic applications, technology and materials. Serving OEM developers of products that utilize magnets and magnet systems, design engineers, OEM developers involved in EMC technology and magnetic effects, magnetics manufacturers and integrators, and material suppliers in the magnetics industry.


Register by March 6th for online pricing.
Before March 6th: $995; Onsite Registration: $1,295
- Sending more than one person to the conference? Team discounts are also available. Register Here


Session Topics Include:

Rare Earths

  • Panel Discussion: The Uncertain Future of the Permanent Magnet Industry • Walter T. Benecki LLC, Moog Components Group, Arnold Magnetic Technologies, Hitachi Metals America

  • Rare Earths and Corporate Responsibility • Avalon Rare Metals, Inc.

  • After the Storm: How the USMMA Sees the Future of the US Magnet Industry • USMMA

  • Rare Earth Crisis Dissected: Calculating the Future • Yunsheng USA

  • Conserving Heavy Rare Earths Through Effective Utilization of Grain Boundary • Shin-Etsu Chemical Co. Ltd

  • Use, Reduction and Probably Remedies of Heavy Rare Earth Metals in Neodymium Iron Boron Alloy System • Tridus Magnetics and Assemblies

  • Efficient Use of Rare-Earth Materials – A New Challenge for Designers • MagnetoDynamics LLC

  • The Metallurgy of Rare Earth Recycling • Colorado School of Mines

  • Molycorp Update: Phoenix Rising • Molycorp

  • High Electrical Resistivity Permanent Magnets for Advanced Motors & Generators • Electron Energy Corp.


  • Cost Effective Drivetrains for Multi-Megawatt Wind Turbines with Medium-Speed Permanent Magnet Generators • Danotek Motion Technologies

  • Usage of Magnetics in Inducted Power Systems • PowerbyProxi

  • High Precision and Simple Analog Through-Shaft Magnetic Sensors for the Control of Electric Drives • Moving Magnet Technologies

  • Superconducting Rotating Machines – Opportunities & Challenges • Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc.

  • Magneto-Optical Visualization and Analysis of Magnetic Fields • Matesy GmbH

  • Energy on Demand • Arnold Magnetic Technologies

  • Permanent Magnet Motors in Low Voltage High Speed Applications • TruTech Specialty Motors

Materials, Design & Testing

  • Magnetic Modeling, Simulation and Analysis for Space Applications • The Aerospace Corp.Forward to Alnico • Applied Magnet Technology LLC

  • Monte-Carlo Method for Calculating Complex Magnetic Systems • North Carolina State University

  • High Electrical Resistivity Permanent Magnets for Advanced Motors and Generators • Electron Energy Corp.

  • Testing Soft Magnetics – Using Wire • Buswell Energy, LLC

  • Injection Molded Magnets for Electrical Machines • Max Baermann GmbH

  • Transformer Modeling Using Finite Element Methods • Cobham Technical Services,
    Vector Fields Software

  • The Pull of Stronger Magnets • Univ. of Texas - Arlington

  • Magnetic Materials and Magnet Materials Related to High-Field Magnets • National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

ProgramPre-Conference WorkshopsExhibitorsRegister

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enc53rd ENC
April 15 - 20, 2012
Miami, FL


ENC sponsors an annual conference for the presentation of experimental research and new applications in NMR.  Oral and poster presentations cover the topics of Biomolecular NMR, Detection, Dynamics, Large Systems, Materials, MRI, Resolution and sensitivity, Screening, Small molecules, Solids, and Solutions.  Attendees spend the evening hours of the conference visiting exhibitor displays and enjoying their generous hospitality. Highlights of the 53rd ENC include presentation of the Laukien Prize (with prize of $20,000) and the after-dinner presentation by Richard Ernst, 1991 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Visit the ENC web site for details on the program, registration and hotel accommodations.  Contact ENC:  telephone (505-989-4573), e-mail (

emcwThe Electrical Manufacturing and Coil Winding Expo

May 9-10, 2012

Milwaukee, WI


The Electrical Manufacturing and Coil Winding Expo is designed specifically for electrical product manufacturers, designers, assemblers, and users. Exhibiting companies will display and demonstrate their latest innovations in electrical manufacturing and coil winding production, and test equipment, components, materials and services -- all designed to help you produce the best possible products at the lowest possible cost. A technical conference with presentations from industry leaders related to the latest design and manufacturing technologies of transformers, permanent magnets, AC/DC motors, electrical coils and components will provide you the best opportunity to stay current on the newest products and technologies.

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