Dysprosium 2.0

By Stan Trout, Spontaneous Materials

A little over five years ago I wrote a column called Dysprosium 2.0. Element number 66 has been in focus lately due to some forecasts about availability in light of some new applications. Adamas predicts a 30% shortage of Dy by 2025. It seems like an appropriate time to look at the situation again. Continue reading

The Changing Landscape of Electric Motor Efficiency Standards

Steve Constantinides, Principal Consultant | Magnetics & Materials, LLC

I was surprised to learn the extent of activity around motor efficiency improvement and the related new or updated standards. The following article should be considered an introduction to the topic. Many useful documents with links are shown in the references for those who wish to pursue the subject further. Continue reading

Balance and Training

Stan Trout, Spontaneous Materials
It was nice to see so many people at Magnetics 2018 in Orlando last month. It was a very pleasant exchange of ideas and information. We all seemed to get plenty of exercise, walking through the Hyatt Regency to our meeting rooms.

I had the good fortune on the first day to be part of the Keynote Panel Discussion called The Future of the Magnetics Industry Pricing, Trends, Technology. I thought I would use this opportunity to share some of the answers I provided to questions posed to the panel. Continue reading

Magnetometry Measurements: Considerations for Magnetic and First-Order-Reversal-Curve Measurements

Brad C. Dodrill, Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.

Magnetometers are used to characterize magnetic material properties. Magnetometry techniques can be broadly classified into two categories: inductive and force-based. Common inductive methods include vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), extraction magnetometry, AC susceptometry and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. The two most commonly used inductive techniques are VSM and SQUID magnetometry. Alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM) is the most often used force-based technique. The measurement most commonly performed to characterize a materialís magnetic properties is that of a major hysteresis loop. The hysteresis or M(H) loop is typically used to determine a materialís saturation magnetization Ms (the magnetization at maximum applied field), remanence Mr (the magnetization at zero applied field after applying a saturating field) and coercivity Hc (the field required to demagnetize the material). More complex magnetization curves covering states with field and magnetization values located inside the major hysteresis loop, such as first-order-reversal-curves (FORCs), can provide additional information that can be used to characterize magnetic interactions and coercivity distributions in magnetic materials[1].

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Permanent Magnet Mistakes, Part Seven

Stan Trout, Spontaneous Materials

We conclude this series with the seventh and final blog, describing the many types of mistakes made with permanent magnets. My intent is to help engineers in the future avoid mistakes made in the past, and not to embarrass anyone.

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Recent Developments and Trends in Nd-Fe-B Magnets

Jinfang Liu, President and COO, Electron Energy Corp.
Melania Jasinski, Manager of Process Engineering, Electron Energy Corp.

Nd-Fe-B magnets have a wide variety of applications in aerospace, medical, semiconductor, telecommunications, power generation, oil & gas exploration and automotive industries.† There have been many new developments in recent years including high energy Nd-Fe-B grades, heavy rare earth free high intrinsic coecivity Nd-Fe-B grades, radially oriented anisotropic rings, and improved manufacturing processes. The Nd-Fe-B market has also met a lot of challenges and opportunities in recent years, including volatile raw materials market, overcapacity problems in China, and patent issues. This article will cover some of the recent technical advances and new trends in Nd-Fe-B magnets. Continue reading

Microstructure and Mechanism of Coercivity Enhancement of Sintered Nd-Fe-B Magnet by Grain Boundary Diffusion

Yong Ding, Xiangke Lv, Min Zhang,
Xiaodong Zhu, Qingzhong Yang
Ningbo Yunsheng Co., Ltd.

Rare earth element (REE) based Nd-Fe-B magnets have been widely used because of their excellent magnetic properties. The applications of Nd-Fe-B rare earth permanent magnets include hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), power generators for wind turbines, high performance industrial motors, hard disk drives (HDD) for computers, traveling wave tubes for satellite communications, headphones and speakers, washing machines, and other consumer electronic devices. Furthermore, as well known, Dy and Tb are used as an additive to Nd-Fe-B magnets to increase the coercivity (because they increase the magneto-crystalline anisotropy) of magnets. But the magnetic moment of Dy and Tb are coupled anti-parallel to that of Fe, which decrease the magnetization and maximum energy product of the magnet. Continue reading